In the spring, when I first started reporting, by phone, on the South Asian monsoon for an article that was published this week, some of the people I talked to encouraged me to come to India to experience the rainy season for myself.
“Come get drenched,” said Ranjan Kelkar, a former head of the India Meteorological Department.
So I went. But I didn’t get drenched.
That’s one of the many things I learned about the monsoon during my two weeks traveling around India in August. It’s not a miasma of moisture that settles like a blanket over the whole subcontinent from June to September, bringing constant precipitation.
Instead, monsoon rains come and go, here and there. When I was visiting villages in Maharashtra State, east of Mumbai, there were only a few sprinkles, and one of the farmers I talked to, Bhagwat Gagre, was worried about his crops if the dryness continued. At the same time, to the northwest, Pakistan was getting hammered by torrential rains that flooded much of the country and killed more than 1,500 people.
That characteristic of the monsoon, localized heavy downpours followed by periods of dryness, is changing as the world warms. More rain is falling in less time, and the dry periods are lengthening, as Roxy Mathew Koll, a climate scientist, told me when I visited him at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Pune.
That makes the monsoon less dependable and spells trouble in a region that is home to about 1.8 billion people, or one-quarter of humanity.
The main reason for the change is that warmer air holds more moisture — about 7 percent more for each 1 degree Celsius of warming. That holds true not just for the Indian subcontinent, but elsewhere in the world. Hurricane Ian, which struck Florida with such fury last week, dumped about 10 percent more rain than it would have in a world without warming, according to one quick analysis.
In South Asia, there is plenty of moisture available for the warmer air to hold. That’s a function of the mechanism of the monsoon, which my graphics colleagues, Jeremy White and Zach Levitt, illustrated with such skill for the article. Heating of the land in spring and summer results in an inflow of air from the Arabian Sea. And, evaporation in the Arabian Sea is a practically inexhaustible source of moisture.
In its four months, the monsoon provides most of India’s water. So any changes in how and when the rains do and don’t come can have huge effects. For cities, heavier downpours create further problems for flood-control infrastructure that is chronically insufficient. Bengalaru, formerly known as Bangalore, with a metro-area population of 13 million, found that out the hard way this summer, experiencing major floods.
For farmers like Gagre, too much water too quickly can mean that much of it is lost, flowing into rivers and streams and thus unavailable as groundwater later in the year. Much of my time in his village and others was spent seeing and talking about efforts to conserve water, undertaken with the help of a nonprofit group, the Watershed Organization Trust.
Those efforts include altering landscapes by digging trenches on slopes and planting more trees to slow runoff so that more water percolates into the ground. But they also include educational efforts like teaching villagers how to develop a water budget for the year, how to monitor groundwater and how to change crops and planting methods to use less water.
All of these steps are crucial in villages like Gagre’s, which in the past would run out of water in January or February, several months before the rains would return. For me, it was fascinating to see and learn about. I wouldn’t even have minded getting drenched.
Read the full article here.
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Essential news from The Times
Living well, and sustainably: The average carbon footprint of an Uruguayan is less than a fifth of an American. The New York Times Magazine investigated why.
The analysis is in: A new study found that global warming made the severe droughts many countries saw this summer at least 20 times as likely compared to a century ago.
Florida climate politics: Republican leaders in the state have a history of rejecting major climate legislation. Now, after Hurricane Ian, they’re seeking federal aid.
After the flood, the mold: Outbreaks of mold may be one of the most devastating, long-term and hidden costs of America’s increasingly humid, wet and stormy climate.
Kathmandu got tap water, then lost it: It took decades to bring tap clean water to the Nepali capital. Floods fueled by climate change quickly destroyed the system.
Aiming for zero extinction: Australia has lost species at one of the highest rates in the world. Now, its government has a plan to prevent further losses.
Recycling buildings: A group of architects, engineers and contractors in Amsterdam is developing less wasteful ways to disassemble and reconstruct buildings.
From the Opinion section
Leaning on each other: A program that teaches community members to pay attention to their neighbors’ mental health is helping farmers affected by drought.
From outside The Times
Atmos explored how climate change is eroding cultural traditions in San José de Gracia, a 200-year-old community in Mexico.
The Associated Press interviewed Californians whose wells have run dry as the Western megadrought has depleted groundwater.
From CBS News: Babcock Ranch was one of the few Florida communities that got through Hurricane Ian almost unscathed. It was designed to be resilient to extreme weather.
An investigation by BBC Panorama revealed that a company receiving billions in green-energy subsidies from Britain is burning wood from old-growth forests in Canada.
From E&E News: The Biden administration added lithium-ion batteries to a list of goods known to be linked to child labor or forced labor.
Before you go: Philosophy for challenging times
If you spend a lot of time thinking about climate, you might want to read “Life is Hard.” The new book, by the philosophy professor Kieran Setiya, makes a case for living well even as we acknowledge difficult truths. Our reviewer likened it to a conversation with a thoughtful friend, one who never tells you to cheer up, but, by offering companionship and a change of perspective, makes you feel better anyway.
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Manuela Andreoni, Claire O’Neill and Douglas Alteen contributed to Climate Forward. Read past editions of the newsletter here.
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